Testing the Timing of Pembrolizumab Alone or With Chemotherapy as First Line Treatment and Maintenance in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer
18 Years and older, Male and Female
This phase III trial studies whether pembrolizumab alone as a first-line treatment, followed by pemetrexed and carboplatin with or without pembrolizumab after disease progression is superior to induction with pembrolizumab, pemetrexed and carboplatin followed by pembrolizumab and pemetrexed maintenance in treating patients with stage IV non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer. Immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies, such as pembrolizumab, may help the body’s immune system attack the cancer, and may interfere with the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as pemetrexed and carboplatin, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. It is not yet known whether giving first-line pembrolizumab followed by pemetrexed and carboplatin with or without pembrolizumab works better in treating patients with non-squamous non-small cell cancer.
I. To evaluate overall survival (OS) in each of the 2 experimental arms (Arms A and B) to control (Arm C).
I. To evaluate progression-free survival (PFS) per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1 for Arm C versus each of Arms A and B.
II. To evaluate best objective response rates per RECIST 1.1 for Arm C versus each of Arms A and B.
III. To estimate toxicity within each of the treatment arms via the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) criteria.
IV. To compare outcomes between Arms A and B.
V. To compare outcomes by treatment arm within subgroups defined by a cutpoint of PD-L1 expression at >= 50%.
I. To collect and bank tissue and blood for future research studies, including potential development of a prognostic and predictive signature for MK-3475 (pembrolizumab) in combination with chemotherapy versus MK-3475 (pembrolizumab) alone.
EXPLORATORY IMAGING OBJECTIVES:
I. To collect and bank standard of care computed tomography (CT) imaging at baseline and first three follow-up post-treatment scans for developing the radiomic risk score with the following exploratory objectives:
Ia. Validate the Radiomic Risk score on pre-treatment scans as well as compute differences between pre- and post- treatment scans (delta features) in determining which patients will benefit from first line pembrolizumab in the metastatic setting in both low (< 50%) and high (> 50%) PD-L1 cohorts using patients in Arm 1 and Arm 2 of the trial where pembrolizumab is used as first line treatment.
Ib. To use the Radiomic Risk score in order to predict which patients would benefit from combination pembrolizumab and subsequent chemotherapy vs. immunotherapy alone in both low (< 50%) and high (> 50%) PD-L1 cohorts using patients who went on to receive chemotherapy as second line and stratifying the patients based on those who received benefit from pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy versus (vs.) pembrolizumab alone.
Ic. Exploratory analysis for other radiomic profiles in predicting response.
OUTLINE: Patients are randomized to 1 of 3 arms.
ARM A: Patients receive pembrolizumab intravenously (IV) over 30 minutes on day 1. Cycles repeat every 21 days for up to 2 years in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Within 6 weeks of disease progression, patients receive pemetrexed IV over 10 minutes and carboplatin IV over 30 minutes on day 1. Treatment repeats every 21 days for up to 4 cycles in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients then may receive pemetrexed IV over 10 minutes on day 1. Cycles repeat every 21 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
ARM B: Patients receive pembrolizumab IV over 30 minutes on day 1. Cycles repeat every 21 days for up to 2 years in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Within 6 weeks of disease progression, patients receive pembrolizumab IV over 30 minutes, pemetrexed IV over 10 minutes, and carboplatin IV over 30 minutes on day 1. Treatment repeats every 21 days for up to 4 cycles in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients then receive pembrolizumab IV over 30 minutes and pemetrexed IV over 10 minutes on day 1. Cycles repeat every 21 days for up to 2 years for pembrolizumab in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity and until to disease progression for pemetrexed.
ARM C: Patients receive pembrolizumab IV over 30 minutes, pemetrexed IV over 10 minutes, and carboplatin IV over 30 minutes on day 1. Treatment repeats every 21 days for up to 4 cycles in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients then receive pembrolizumab IV over 30 minutes and pemetrexed IV over 10 minutes on day 1. Cycles repeat every 21 days for up to 2 years for pembrolizumab in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity and until to disease progression for pemetrexed.
After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up for 5 years.
- Patients must have histologically or cytologically confirmed stage IV non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (includes M1a, M1b, and M1c stage disease, American Joint Committee on Cancer [AJCC] 8th edition). Patients with stage IIIB and IIIC disease are eligible if they are not candidates for combined chemotherapy and radiation
- Patients must have PD-L1 expression Tumor Proportion Score (TPS) >= 1% in tumor cells. If PD-L1 expression TPS is unevaluable or the testing could not be completed, the patients are not eligible. The assay must have been performed by a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act (CLIA) (or equivalent) certified laboratory
- Patients must have measurable or non-measurable disease. The presence of malignant pleural fluid alone is sufficient to satisfy this eligibility criterion. Baseline imaging assessments and measurements used to evaluate all measurable or non-measurable sites of disease must be done within 4 weeks prior to study registration
* NOTE: If patient receives pemetrexed, follow institutional guidelines to drain fluids
- Patients must be >= 18 years of age
- Patients must have an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 to 1
- Patients with treated brain metastases are eligible if follow-up brain imaging after central nervous system (CNS)-directed therapy shows no evidence of progression. CNS progression counts as progression and patients must move on to the next phase after CNS treatment. Patients with asymptomatic new (at screening) or progressive brain metastases (active brain metastases at screening) or leptomeningeal disease are eligible if the treating physician determines that immediate CNS specific treatment is not required and is unlikely to be required during the first cycle of therapy
* Patients are eligible if off steroids for at least 14 days prior to protocol treatment
* Palliative radiation to non-target lesions (bone metastasis) is allowed if patient develops symptoms
* Anticonvulsants are allowed
* Patients with asymptomatic, sub-centimeter brain metastasis who at the discretion of investigators do not need immediate CNS directed therapies are eligible
- Patients with prior or concurrent malignancy whose natural history or treatment does not have the potential to interfere with the safety or efficacy assessment of the investigational regimen are eligible for this trial
- Patients with known history or current symptoms of cardiac disease, or history of treatment with cardiotoxic agents, should have a clinical risk assessment of cardiac function using the New York Heart Association Functional Classification. To be eligible for this trial, patients should be class 2B or better
- Women of childbearing potential and sexually active males must use an accepted and effective method of contraception or abstain from sexual intercourse from time of registration, while on study treatment, and continue for 120 days after the last dose of study treatment
- Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >= 1500/mm^3 (within 14 days of randomization)
- Platelets >= 100,000/mm^3 (within 14 days of randomization)
- Prothrombin time (PT)/international normalized ratio (INR) =< 1.5 Or if patient on therapeutic anticoagulation, PT/INR =< 3.0 (within 14 days of randomization)
- Partial thromboplastin time (PTT) =< institutional upper limit of normal (ULN) OR, if patient is on therapeutic anticoagulation, PTT must be =< 1.5 x ULN (within 14 days of randomization)
- Total bilirubin =< 1.5 mg/dL (obtained within 14 days of randomization)
- Serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) (aspartate aminotransferase [AST]) < 5 x upper limit of normal (ULN) (obtained within 14 days of randomization)
- Serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) (alanine aminotransferase [ALT]) < 5 x upper limit of normal (ULN) (obtained within 14 days of randomization)
- Calculated creatinine clearance >= 45 ml/min to be eligible to receive pemetrexed (obtained within 14 days prior to randomization)
- Serum creatinine =< 1.5 x institutional upper limit of normal (ULN) (obtained within 14 days prior to randomization)
- Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients on effective anti-retroviral therapy with undetectable viral load within 6 months are eligible for this trial
- For patients with evidence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, the HBV viral load must be undetectable or on suppressive therapy, if indicated. Patients with a history of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection must have been treated and cured. For patients with HCV infection who are currently on treatment, they are eligible if they have an undetectable HCV viral load
Treatment Sites in Georgia
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