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Testing the Addition of an Anti-cancer Drug, Lenalidomide, to the Usual Combination Chemotherapy Treatment (“EPOCH”) for Adult T-Cell Leukemia-Lymphoma (ATL)

Cancer Type
Hematopoietic Malignancies
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
Unknown Primary
Trial Phase
Phase I
18 Years and older, Male and Female
Study Type
Protocol IDs
10335 (primary)
Study Sponsor
Yale University Cancer Center LAO


This phase I trial studies the side effects and best dose of lenalidomide when given together with usual combination chemotherapy (etoposide, prednisone, vincristine sulfate [Oncovin], cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin hydrochloride [hydroxydaunorubicin hydrochloride], or "EPOCH") in treating adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma. Lenalidomide may help shrink or slow the growth of adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as etoposide, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Anti-inflammatory drugs such as prednisone lower the body’s immune response and are used with other drugs in the treatment of some types of cancer. Giving lenalidomide and the usual combination chemotherapy may work better in treating adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma compared to the usual combination chemotherapy alone.


I. To determine the safest and most tolerable dose and schedule of lenalidomide to combine with etoposide, prednisone, vincristine sulfate (Oncovin), cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin hydrochloride (hydroxydaunorubicin hydrochloride) (EPOCH) chemotherapy in adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL/ATLL).

I. To observe and record anti-tumor activity.
II. To determine if lenalidomide and EPOCH activity results in significant improvement in remission rates, duration of remissions, and overall survival (OS) as compared to historical controls.
III. To determine if lenalidomide and EPOCH activity correlates with T-cell receptor (TCR) pathway gene mutational spectrum.
IV. To determine effects of lenalidomide and EPOCH on human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) proviral deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) loads.
V. To determine effects of lenalidomide and EPOCH on HTLV-1 clonality.

OUTLINE: This is a dose-escalation study of lenalidomide.

INDUCTION THERAPY: Patients receive lenalidomide orally (PO) once daily (QD) on days 1-14 of 21 day cycles or days 1-21 or 1-28 of 28 day cycles. Patients receive doxorubicin hydrochloride intravenously (IV) continuously on days 1-4, vincristine sulfate IV continuously on days 1-4, etoposide IV continuously on days 1-4, prednisone PO on days 1-5, and cyclophosphamide IV over 1-4 hours on day 5. Treatment repeats every 21 or 28 days for up to 6 cycles in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

MAINTENANCE THERAPY: Patients with complete response (CR), partial response (PR), or stable disease (SD) may receive up to 2 additional cycles of lenalidomide, doxorubicin hydrochloride, vincristine sulfate, etoposide, prednisone, and cyclophosphamide at the discretion of the investigator and/or up to an additional 2 years of lenalidomide in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

Patients undergo bone marrow biopsy at baseline and as clinically indicated. Patients undergo positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) or CT, tissue and blood sample collection throughout the trial.

After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up for 2 years from end of induction. Patients who do not continue on lenalidomide maintenance are followed every 3 months for up to 2 years from the end of induction, progression, withdrawal, or until death, whichever occurs first.


  1. Patients must have histologically or cytologically confirmed CD2+, CD3+, or CD4+ acute, lymphoma or poor-risk chronic subtypes of ATLL including previously untreated or previously treated individuals who have received no more than 1 previous cycle of EPOCH, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP), or cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone, and etoposide (CHOPE).
  2. Patients previously treated with azidothymidine (AZT), interferon (IFN), bexarotene, or mogamulizumab are eligible. Patients with stable disease at high risk of relapse from prior non-combination chemotherapy containing treatment are eligible to participate
  3. Documentation of HTLV infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in individuals with confirmation of HTLV-1 infection (by immunoblot or polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) or a consistent clinical picture (including two of three of: 1) CD4+ leukemia or lymphoma, 2) hypercalcemia, and/or 3) Japanese, Caribbean, or South American birthplace) is required for enrollment. Confirmation of HTLV-1 infection is required to continue the subject on protocol after the first cycle of therapy. Patients will be enrolled based on reports from local or referral labs (e.g., Mayo Clinic or LabCorp). Confirmation will be performed by Ratner Lab at Washington University, retrospectively, but this is not a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) assay and is not reimbursed by insurance
  4. Age = 18 years * Because no dosing or AE data are currently available on the use of lenalidomide in combination with EPOCH in patients < 18 years of age, children are excluded from this study, but will be eligible for future pediatric trials
  5. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status =< 2 (Karnofsky >= 60%)
  6. Absolute neutrophil count >= 1,000/mm^3 unless decreased due to bone marrow (BM) involvement with lymphoma
  7. Platelets >= 100,000/mm^3 unless decreased due to BM involvement with lymphoma
  8. Total bilirubin =< 1.5 x institutional upper limit of normal (ULN), if potentially due to lymphoma, in the dose-expansion cohort, the first cycle may be given without lenalidomide and if transaminitis and bilirubinemia improves to meet parameters, participant may be enrolled
  9. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase [SGOT])/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase [SGPT]) =< 2 x institutional ULN, if potentially due to lymphoma, in the dose-expansion cohort, the first cycle may be given without lenalidomide and if transaminitis and bilirubinemia improve to meet parameters, participant may be enrolled
  10. Creatinine =< institutional ULN OR glomerular filtration rate (GFR) >= 60 mL/min/1.73 m^2 for participants with creatinine levels above institutional normal
  11. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients on effective anti-retroviral therapy with undetectable viral load within 6 months are eligible for this trial
  12. For patients with evidence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, the HBV viral load must be undetectable on suppressive therapy, if indicated
  13. Patients with a history of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection must have been treated and cured. For patients with HCV infection who are currently on treatment, they are eligible if they have an undetectable HCV viral load
  14. Patients with treated brain metastases are eligible if follow-up brain imaging after central nervous system (CNS)-directed therapy shows no evidence of progression
  15. Patients with new or progressive brain metastases (active brain metastases) or leptomeningeal disease are eligible if the treating physician determines that immediate CNS specific treatment is not required and is unlikely to be required during the first cycle of therapy
  16. Patients with a prior or concurrent malignancy whose natural history or treatment does not have the potential to interfere with the safety or efficacy assessment of the investigational regimen are eligible for this trial
  17. Patients with known history or current symptoms of cardiac disease, or history of treatment with cardiotoxic agents, should have a clinical risk assessment of cardiac function using the New York Heart Association Functional Classification. To be eligible for this trial, patients should be class 2B or better
  18. Patients must have a life expectancy > 12 weeks
  19. Patients must have no serious active infection requiring therapy at the time of study entry
  20. Patients must not require the concurrent use of chemotherapy, interferon, zidovudine, arsenic, radiation therapy, or other specific anti-tumor therapy, during the course of this study
  21. The effects of lenalidomide on the developing human fetus are unknown. Immunodulatory derivative (immunomodulatory imide drug [IMiD]) agents as well as other therapeutic agents used in this trial are known to be teratogenic. Females of child-bearing potential (FCBP) must have a negative serum or urine pregnancy test with a sensitivity of at least 25 mIU/mL within 10-14 days prior to, and again within 24 hours of starting lenalidomide, and must either commit to continued abstinence from heterosexual intercourse or begin two acceptable methods of birth control, one highly effective method and one additional effective method at the same time, at least 28 days before she starts taking lenalidomide. FCBP must also agree to ongoing pregnancy testing. Men must agree to use a latex condom during sexual contact with a FCBP even if they have had a successful vasectomy. All patients must be counselled at a minimum of every 28 days about pregnancy precautions and risk of fetal exposure. Should a woman become pregnant or suspect she is pregnant while she or her partner are participating in this study, she should inform her treating physician immediately. FCBP must use adequate contraception for at least 28 days after discontinuation from study. Men treated or enrolled on this protocol must also agree to use adequate contraception prior to the study, for the duration of study participation, and for at least 28 days after discontinuation from study
  22. Ability to understand and the willingness to sign a written informed consent document. Participants with impaired decision-making capacity (IDMC) who have a legally-authorized representative (LAR) and/or family member available will also be eligible
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