Radiation Therapy with Durvalumab or Cetuximab in Treating Patients with Locoregionally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer Who Cannot Take Cisplatin
18 Years and older, Male and Female
This phase II/III trial studies how well radiation therapy works with durvalumab or cetuximab in treating patients with head and neck cancer that has spread to a local and/or regional area of the body who cannot take cisplatin. Radiation therapy uses high energy x-rays to kill tumor cells and shrink tumors. Immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies, such as durvalumab, may help the body’s immune system attack the cancer, and may interfere with the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. Cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody that may interfere with the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. It is not known if radiation therapy with durvalumab will work better than the usual therapy of radiation therapy with cetuximab in treating patients with head and neck cancer.
I. To determine the safety of radiotherapy (RT) with concurrent and adjuvant anti-PD-L1 therapy (MEDI4736 [durvalumab]) is safe in patients with locoregionally advanced head and neck cancer (HNC) who have a contraindication to cisplatin. (Lead-in)
II. To test the hypothesis that concurrent RT and anti-PD-L1 therapy improves progression free survival (PFS) compared to standard therapy (RT with concurrent cetuximab) in patients with locoregionally advanced HNC who have a contraindication to cisplatin. (Phase II)
III. To test the hypothesis that concurrent RT and anti-PD-L1 therapy improves overall survival compared to standard therapy (RT with concurrent cetuximab) in patients with locoregionally advanced HNC who have a contraindication to cisplatin. (Phase III)
I. To compare toxicity using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) and Patient Reported Outcomes (PRO)-CTCAE between patients treated with RT + anti-PD-L1 therapy versus RT/cetuximab.
II. To test the effect of anti-PD-L1 therapy in the subpopulation of patients with tumors that overexpress PD-L1.
III. To compare overall survival, response (at 4-month fludeoxyglucose F-18 [FDG]-positron emission tomography [PET]-computed tomography [CT]), locoregional failure, distant metastasis, and competing mortality in the two arms by known risk factors, including p16 status and omega score.
IV. To test the hypothesis that MEDI4736 (durvalumab) therapy arm will have less decline in the physical function domain of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30 version 3.0) based on the change in score from baseline to 12 months from end of RT, compared to the cetuximab-RT arm in patients with locoregionally advanced HNC who have a contraindication to cisplatin.
V. To test the hypothesis that MEDI4736 (durvalumab) therapy arm at 1 year (from end of RT) will have less decline in swallowing related quality of life (QOL) using the M. D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) total composite score, based on the change in score from baseline to 12 months from end of RT, compared to the cetuximab-RT arm in patients who are medically unfit for cisplatin.
VI. To compare swallowing related performance and function short and long term using the Performance Status Scale for Head & Neck Cancer Patients (PSS-HN).
VII. To evaluate gastrostomy tube retention rates between arms.
I. To test the hypothesis that radiation combined with MEDI4736 (durvalumab) enhances the adaptive immune response using three types of immunophenotyping compared to radiation combined with cetuximab.
II. To compare overall QOL short term (end RT-8 months) and long term (12-24 months from end of RT) between arms using the EORTC QLQ-C30 version 3.0/HN35.
III. To evaluate swallowing related QOL short term (end RT-8 months) and long term (12-24 months from end of RT) using the EORTC Head and Neck (HN)35 swallowing domain and MDADI (subscales) between arms in patients with locoregionally advanced HNC who have a contraindication to cisplatin.
IV. To evaluate patient reported fatigue using the fatigue items in the EORTC QLQ and PRO-CTCAE.
V. To compare clinician and patient reported toxicity using CTCAE and PRO CTCAE.
VI. To explore health utilities between cetuximab and MEDI4736 (durvalumab) RT using the European Quality of Life 5 Dimensional-5 Level (EQ5D-5L).
OUTLINE: Patients are randomized to 1 of 2 arms.
ARM I: Patients receive cetuximab intravenously (IV) weekly over 60-120 minutes. Treatment repeats every week for up to 8 cycles in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Beginning 5-7 days after first cetuximab dose, patients undergo intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) 5 fractions per week for up to 7 weeks.
ARM II: Patients receive durvalumab IV over 60 minutes every 4 weeks. Treatment repeats every 4 weeks for up to 7 cycles in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Beginning week 2, patients undergo IMRT 5 fractions per week for up to 7 weeks.
After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up at 1 month, every 4 months for 1 year, every 6 months for 2 years, then annually thereafter.
- PRIOR TO STEP 1 REGISTRATION INCLUSION CRITERIA
- Patients must have pathologically confirmed, previously untreated, unresected squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, hypopharynx, oropharynx, oral cavity, or carcinoma of unknown head/neck primary prior to step 1 registration; submission of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides and formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue block (or punch biopsy of FFPE block) to the biospecimen bank at University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) for central review for oropharyngeal and unknown primaries and for p16 analysis for all other non-oropharyngeal primaries is mandatory for all patients; investigators should check with their pathology department regarding release of biospecimens before approaching patients about participation in the trial; for oropharyngeal and unknown primaries, submission of H&E and p16 stained slides (with the required block for PD-L1) to the biospecimen bank at UCSF for central review is also required prior to step 2 registration
* Note: fine needle aspirates (FNA) samples are not acceptable since they do not provide enough material for PD-L1 and p16 testing; however, if a cell block derived from the FNA is available, it is allowable if there are sufficient cells present in the block for PD-L1 testing; Dr. Jordan will determine this upon receipt; for sites submitting FNA cell blocks for ALL patients they must do so within 7-10 business days from registering the patient; sites must confirm with their cytology/pathology labs to make sure they can provide the required material as the bank must be able to retain these samples for the mandatory testing
- Patients must have locoregionally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC)
* For p16-positive oropharyngeal/unknown primaries, American Joint Committee on Cancer [AJCC] 8th edition stage III and selected stage I-II based on smoking status in pack-years
* For laryngeal, hypopharyngeal, and oral cavity primaries and p16-negative oropharyngeal/unknown primaries, AJCC 8th edition stage III-IVB
* Based on the following minimum diagnostic workup within 60 days prior to step 1 registration:
** General history and physical examination by a radiation oncologist or medical oncologist or ear, nose and throat (ENT) or head & neck surgeon
** For larynx, hypopharynx, and base of tongue primaries, a laryngopharyngoscopy (mirror and/or fiberoptic and/or direct procedure) is required, unless the patient cannot tolerate or refuses
* Imaging of the head and neck with a neck CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (with contrast, unless contraindicated) or PET/CT; note that the CT portion of the PET/CT must be of diagnostic quality, including contrast administration unless contraindicated. If the CT portion of the PET/CT study is low-dose (non-diagnostic), then an additional CT or MRI study with contrast (unless contraindicated) is required
* Chest imaging: chest CT with and without contrast (unless contraindicated) or PET/CT
- Patients must have a contraindication to cisplatin as defined in the following bullet points; sites must complete the online tool at comogram.org prior to step 1 registration to determine if the patient is eligible; the scores must be recorded on a case report form (CRF)
* Age >= 70 with moderate to severe comorbidity or vulnerability to cisplatin, defined as having one or more of the following conditions within 30 days prior to step 1 registration:
** Modified Charlson Comorbidity Index >= 1
** Adult Comorbidity Evaluation (ACE)-27 Index >= 1
** Generalized Competing Event Model for Cancer Risk (GCE) omega PFS score < 0.80
** Geriatric screening (G-8) score =< 14
** Cancer and Aging Research Group (CARG) toxicity score >= 30%
** Cumulative Illness Rating scale for Geriatrics (CIRS-G) score >= 4 OR
* Age < 70 with severe comorbidity or vulnerability to cisplatin, defined as having two or more of the following conditions within 30 days prior to step 1 registration
** Modified Charlson Comorbidity Index >= 1
** ACE-27 Index >= 1
** GCE omega PFS-score < 0.80
** G-8 score =< 14
** CARG Toxicity score >= 30%
** CIRS-G score >= 4 OR
* Age >= 18 with an absolute or relative contraindication to cisplatin, defined as one or more of the following within 30 days prior to step 1 registration:
** Creatinine clearance (CC) > 30 and < 60 cc/min; for this calculation, use the Cockcroft-Gault formula
** Zubrod performance status 2 prior to step 1 registration
** Pre-existing peripheral neuropathy grade >= 1
** History of hearing loss, defined as either:
*** Existing need of a hearing aid OR
*** >= 25 decibel shift over 2 contiguous frequencies on a pretreatment hearing test as clinically indicated
- Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >= 1,000 cells/mm^3 (within 14 days prior to step 1 registration)
- Platelets >= 100,000 cells/mm^3 (within 14 days prior to step 1 registration)
- Hemoglobin >= 9.0 g/dl (Note: the use of transfusion or other intervention to achieve hemoglobin [Hgb] >= 9.0 g/dl is acceptable) (within 14 days prior to step 1 registration)
- Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) =< 2.5 times institutional upper limit of normal (within 14 days prior to step 1 registration)
- Serum bilirubin =< 1.5 x institutional upper limit of normal (within 14 days prior to step 1 registration)
- Measured creatinine clearance (CL) > 30 mL/min or calculated creatinine CL > 30 mL/min by the Cockcroft-Gault formula (Cockcroft and Gault 1976) or by 24-hour urine collection for determination of creatinine clearance (within 14 days prior to step 1 registration)
- For women of childbearing potential, a negative serum or urine pregnancy test within 14 days prior to step 1 registration; Note: women will be considered post-menopausal if they have been amenorrheic for 12 months without an alternative medical cause; the following age-specific requirements apply:
* Women < 50 years of age would be considered post-menopausal if they have been amenorrheic for 12 months or more following cessation of exogenous hormonal treatments and if they have luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels in the post-menopausal range for the institution or underwent surgical sterilization (bilateral oophorectomy or hysterectomy)
* Women >= 50 years of age would be considered post-menopausal if they have been amenorrheic for 12 months or more following cessation of all exogenous hormonal treatments, had radiation-induced menopause with last menses > 1 year ago, had chemotherapy-induced menopause with last menses > 1 year ago, or underwent surgical sterilization (bilateral oophorectomy, bilateral salpingectomy or hysterectomy)
- The patient or a legally authorized representative must provide study-specific informed consent prior to step 1 registration
- PRIOR TO STEP 2 REGISTRATION INCLUSION CRITERIA
- For patients with oropharyngeal or unknown primaries: p16 determination by immunohistochemistry (defined as greater than 70% strong nuclear or nuclear and cytoplasmic staining of tumor cells), confirmed by central pathology review
* Note: for patients with oral cavity, laryngeal, and hypopharyngeal primaries, analysis of p16 status prior to step 2 registration/randomization is not required (p16 status will be analyzed centrally post-hoc); step 2 registration for these patients can be completed after step 1 registration
Treatment Sites in Georgia
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