The number of patients entered into a study. Each clinical trial requires a specific
number of participants in order to provide adequate information for analysis to
answer the specific questions asked in the study.
A National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cancer cooperative group. ACOSOG stands
for American College of Surgeons Oncology Group.
A National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cancer cooperative group). ACRIN stands
for American College of Radiology Imaging.
In cancer prevention clinical trials, a study that focuses on finding out whether
actions people take can prevent cancer.
Another treatment used together with the primary treatment. Its purpose is to assist
the primary treatment.
Treatment given after the primary treatment to increase the chances of a cure. Adjuvant
therapy may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, or biological
An unwanted side effect of treatment.
In cancer prevention clinical trials, a study that tests whether taking certain
medicines, vitamins, minerals, or food supplements can prevent cancer. Also called
AJCC Staging System
A system developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer for describing the
extent of cancer in a patient’s body. The descriptions include TNM: T describes
the size of the tumor and if it has invaded nearby tissue, N describes any lymph
nodes that are involved, and M describes metastasis (spread of cancer from one body
part to another).
A process in which anything complex is separated into simple or less complex parts.
In clinical trials, analysis typically refers to the review and interpretation of
data collected during the study.
An incomplete description of the medical and treatment history of one or more patients.
Anecdotal reports may be published in places other than peer-reviewed, scientific
An animal with a disease either the same as or like a disease in humans. Animal
models are used to study the development and progression of diseases and to test
new treatments before they are given to humans. Animals with transplanted human
cancers or other tissues are called xenograft models.
Prevention of the growth of new blood vessels.
A specific therapy program under study, often used interchangeably with treatment
program, treatment regimen, treatment arm, or treatment. Used when referring to
a particular treatment regimen in a study that has more than one regimen.
Treatment with an antibody, a substance that can directly kill specific tumor cells
or stimulate the immune system to kill tumor cells.
Treatment with drugs, surgery, or radiation in order to block the production or
action of a hormone. Antihormone therapy may be used in cancer treatment because
certain hormones are able to stimulate the growth of some types of tumors.
A substance that blocks the formation of neoplasms (growths that may become cancerous).